Glucose is a toxic substance in the blood- that is why insulin works so hard to quickly remove it.  Elevated levels of glucose can lead to all types of complications- why diabetics have to inject themselves with insulin in order to remove the glucose from the blood.

As glucose levels are raised, there is potential for damage to the blood vessels, heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and even stroke.  Excess glucose can attach to proteins in the blood vessels (termed AGEs, advanced glycated end product), thus altering their normal structure and function.  The blood vessels become thicker and less elastic, causing inflammation on obstructions.

But wait, that’s not all, since glucose initiates insulin production and release, we can also look at toxicity of insulin:

Besides all of the fat storage, suppression of fat utilization, and overwhelming of all other hormones, insulin is also toxic! Too much insulin in the system can create a sort of “boy who cried wolf” scenario.  When insulin has be stimulated again and again as a response to excess glucose, the receptors on the cells become altered and no longer correctly respond to insulin’s knocking to open up and let the glucose in.  This is a MAJOR problem and is the root of Type II diabetes.

  • In the presence of excess insulin, the liver is unable to convert thyroid hormone T4 to T3, causing slowed metabolism.
  • Insulin resistance prevents amino acids from entering the cells so muscles can’t be built and maintained.
  • When insulin resistant, the body doesn’t think it is getting enough energy from sugars and signals for muscle catabolism (breakdown).
  • Eventually after pumping out so much insulin, the pancreas throws in the towel and gives up production.  Lack of insulin production is deemed Type I diabetes, however here a Type II case has evolved into a Type I case.

(*I must note here that fructose is a bit different and I will post up information on fructose later on and link to it here)